Bygning af borge
Til konstruktion af borge og slotte bruger vi de regler der er specificeret i ”The Castle Guide”. Det eneste i som spillere behøver er at udfylde dette Castleguide – regneark.
De parametre der skal bruges til at bestemme faktorer for terræn, geografi, arbejdsstyrke osv. Får du opgivet at gamemasteren.
Forklaring på de forskellige konstruktionsdele er at finde nedenfor.
From “the castle guide.”
Many of the terms used in the above table may be unclear to those unfamiliar with medieval architecture. In addition, the actual construction of, say, a barbican may be greatly varied in different kingdoms. Thus, we provide the following description of the castle modules in an effort to fully define them for use in castle design.
Readers should note that the dimensions given in the descriptions of the various modules are internal dimensions. Thus, a small, square tower that is described as 30’ by 30’ has external dimensions of 50’ by 50’ because of its 10’ thick walls.
Barbicans are a form of construction intended to protect the castle gate from attackers. In this sense, they are much like the gate-keeps that eventually evolve from them. Barbicans are set into the outer and curtain walls of a castle.
Small barbicans are composed of two small, round towers set some 20 feet apart with a stone building linking their upper sections together. The space beneath the suspended building often houses a gate, but may be found open from time to time. In our module, a gate is always assumed to be included.
Medium barbicans are composed of a brace of medium, round towers that are spaced 20 feet apart and connected with a small stone building. Once again, a gate is assumed to be included beneath the building.
Large barbicans are also based on two medium, round towers but are spaced 40 feet apart and have a large linking structure between them.
In all cases, the floors and walls of the connecting structure have murderholes and embrasures through which attackers can be assaulted. Further, each tower, whether small or medium, is assumed to be two stories (30’) tall.
Stone buildings are generally used in the design of a bailey or castle compound, and are not an actual part of the castle itself. For those who wish to build themselves a home, warehouse, shop, or other structure (either within the confines of a castle wall or in a small village), these buildings can be used.
Small buildings are generally square in shape. The walls average 2 feet in thickness and stand 15 feet tall. The interior of the building has 400 square feet of floor area (usually 20’ by 20’).
Medium and large buildings have similar wall constructions, but have, respectively, 800 square feet and 1,800 square feet of floor area. Usually, a medium building is 40’ by 20’ and a large building is 60’ by 30’.
Great stone buildings are two level affairs, standing 30’ tall. Like the other stone structures, their walls average 2 feet thick (more at the base, less at the top). Each of the great building’s two floors has 1,800 square feet of surface area, usually with dimensions of 30’ by 60’.
Grand stone buildings are large and impressive things. They stand 45’ tall, having three internal levels. The building is usually 80’ long by 40’ wide, giving each floor 3,200 square feet of surface area. Other shapes and dimensions are possible, but the internal surface area will remain similar.
Like stone buildings, the following structures are found within the castle walls as out-buildings. In addition, they make up the majority of buildings in a town, village, or other community. The dimensions listed for each entry are the most common, but builders are by no means restricted to them. When determining the price and labor time for a nonstandard building, base your estimate on the square footage of its nearest equivalent from this listing.
Small, medium, and large wooden buildings have very thin walls, usually only a few inches thick. Small buildings are 20’ by 20’, giving them 400 square feet of floor space. Medium buildings are 40’ by 20’ and have 800 square feet of floor space. Large buildings, which are often found as storage areas or large shops, are 60’ by 30’ and have 1,800 square feet of floor space.
Great wooden buildings are two story affairs that stand 30’ tall. They are 60’ long and 30’ wide, with 1,800 square feet of surface area on each floor.
Grand wooden buildings are three stories (45’) tall and measure 80’ by 40’. Each floor has a surface area of 3,200 square feet for a total of 9,600 square feet.
Ditches are used in castle defense to make the land which attackers must cross uneven and dangerous. While giving their attention to getting past a ditch or other obstacle, attackers are far more vulnerable to defensive missile fire.
Each ditch section is 10’ long, 10’ across, and 5’ deep. Thus, a 100’ long ditch would require 10 ditch modules. A ditch is not finished and will not hold water like a moat, although water will pool there after a storm.
A drawbridge, which is assumed to include a small structure from which it is operated, is used to allow easy passage over ditches, moats, and other castle defenses. The average drawbridge is 20’ long and 10’ wide. Larger examples can be created by combining two (or more) drawbridge modules. The drawbridge is assumed to be made.
from hard wood and is braced (or even shod) with metal to increase its strength.
A major step in the evolution of the castle, a gatekeep permits the defenders of the castle to confront attackers before they reach the main gates themselves. In essence, a gatekeep is much like a barbican that is set away from the castle walls and connected to them via a pair of strong stone walls. Even if the outer barriers of the ga-tekeep are breached, the walls act to create a killing field t makes the final assault on the ga es even more difficult.
A lesser gatekeep consists of two small, round towers and a linking structure (essentially a small barbican) that are set some 20 feet out from the castle’s main gate. ‘Dvo 15’ high walls run from the flanking towers to the main gate and secure the structure to the castle.
Greater gatekeeps are somewhat larger and incorporate four medium, round towers. ?vo are positioned forward just as they are in a lesser gatekeep, but two more are built into the castle walls around the main gate itself. In this way, the rear towers can provide better fire into the killing fields between the castle and outer defenses and can also support the forward towers in holding off attackers. Persons in the forward towers can move along the top of the walls (which provide partial cover from enemy archers) to reach the castle towers. In times of combat, this is dangerous to attempt.
Grand gatekeeps are the ultimate in gate defense. They are composed of four large towers, arranged in the same manner as the towers in the greater gatekeep, and can hold off huge numbers of enemy forces for extended periods of time. The two forward towers are set some 30 feet out from the castle and 40 feet apart. A fully enclosed stone passage runs along the upper section of the two flanking walls, allowing easy and safe passage from the towers to the castle and back again.
As technology improves, the idea of making ditches even more effective by filling them with water naturally arises. Thus, in essence, a moat is nothing more than a ditch that has been finished so that water will be contained by it. Channels are used to link moats with the water ways that will fill them. In some cases, it may be necessary to dam part of a waterway to divert water into the moat. Dams can be built like stone walls, but cost twice as much and take twice as long to complete.
It is sometimes possible to fill a moat with dangerous animals that can be used to increase its effectiveness during an attack. Exact details in such cases are left to the DM’s imagination. It is important to keep in mind, however, that unintelligent moat guardians will attack defender and intruder alike and that intelligent denizens will require some reason for accepting a position as “moat guard”.
Just as it is sometimes wise to ring a castle with ditches to defend it, it is always better to build on high ground. In cases where a natural earthen mound or motte is not available, manmade ones can be created. As a rule, one motte module represents a 10’ by 10’ square area raised 5’. Thus, if an area 400’ by 400’ (160,000 square feet) were to be raised, 1,600 moat units would be required for each 5’ rise in ground level.
A palisade is a fence of wooden posts (usually about six inches thick) that is set up as a defense against enemy charges and the like. Palisades are often set up along the defending edge of a ditch or moat to make them even more difficult to bypass. A palisade module runs 10’ long and stands 5’ high.
Rounded towers provide better a better defense against things like screws and sappers. As a rule, they tend to be somewhat smaller internally than their square counterparts, and use less stone. Thus, they cost somewhat less to build. The technology required to build such structures, however, may not always be available to the castle designer.
Small towers of this type have a 30’ diameter interior space available for use and are 40’ in diameter on the outside. A single tower module is assumed to be 2 stories tall (30’) and have walls, which average 10’ thick. Of course, this assumes that the walls will be thinner at the top and wider at the base. Embrasures in the wall allow fresh air into the tower and permit those within to fire on troops outside.
Medium and large towers resemble their smaller cousins in most ways. Again, they are assumed to be 30’ tall and be divided into two levels. Medium towers have a 40’ internal diameter while large towers are 60’ across.
Larger towers can be built by combining two or more tower modules together and combining the costs. If the structure is to stand alone, then the second module must be one size smaller than the tower below it. Thus, a large round tower could act as a base with a medium round tower atop it and a small round tower atop that. If the structure is anchored to a wall, then two similar towers may stand atop each other. Thus, a six level tall anchored tower could be made up of two large towers for the base and one medium tower atop. Exceptions are possible, but are very rare, expensive, and hard to construct without magical assistance.
Although less sturdy and somewhat more expensive to make, square towers are easier to build than round ones. Thus, they are somewhat more common. Square towers are found in the same basic sizes as round ones, and a tower module is again assumed to be 30’ tall with two internal levels. The internal space available in a square tower is somewhat greater than it is in a round tower of similar size because the chamber is not rounded off.
A small tower is 30’ by 30’ inside, with outer dimensions of 50’ by 50’. Medium and large towers are 40’ and 60’ square respectively. Square towers can be stacked just as round towers can. Further, it is possible to stack a round tower atop a square tower so long as size restrictions are obeyed.
A tunnel module represents an underground chamber of 1,000 cubic feet. Usually, this is a 10’ long by 10’ wide by 10’ high section, but the configuration may vary based on need and purpose. For example, a chamber that is going to be 20’ by 40’ with 10’ high ceilings has a volume of 8,000 cubic feet and would require 8 tunnel modules to complete.
A typical section of stone wall is assumed to be 10’ long, 10’ thick, and 15’ high. Walls can be stacked, like towers, but must follow some restrictions. For every level that is going to be stacked above it, an extra module must be added to a wall for every 50’ (or fraction thereof) in its length. Thus, if we are planning a 3 level high (45’ tall) wall that is 50’ long we need to add 2 additional modules to the lower level and one additional module to the second level for bracing. Thus, our three level high, 50’ long wall requires the 15 modules that make it up, plus an additional 3 modules for bracing.
In addition to the wall itself, a number of options are available at higher tech levels. In some cases, walls are assumed to possess certain features as described in the text that follows.
Hoardings are wooden structures that are added to the top of a wall. Because they extend outward from the castle and have numerous holes in their undersides, defenders can move about in them and fire on attackers at the base of the wall. Because they are made of wood, however, hoardings are vulnerable to fire and artillery.
A glacis is an additional section of stone added to the base of a wall that angles outward and creates a sloped or slanted base. In addition to making the wall more resistant to screws and sappers, a glacis will cause things like boiling oil to splatter when the defenders above pour it on the attackers around the glacis. A wall with a glacis is assumed to include hoardings if desired.
Machicolations replace hoard-ings as a means of attacking enemies at the castle walls. Advances in technology allow the wall itself to be built with a stone overhang that serves the same purpose, but is far less vulnerable to attack. As with hoardings, machicolations are dotted with murderholes for attacks on those below them. A wall with machicolations is assumed to include a glacis at its base.
Posterns are small gates that allow one or two men to slip out of the castle without drawing attention to themselves. They are not secret doors, but are not nearly as obvious when opened as the main gates. The cost for a section of wall with a postern in it is in addition to any cost for things like machicolations. Thus, a wall section with machicolations and a postern would require 58 weeks to build and cost 964 gold pieces.
A wooden wall section is assumed to be 10 feet long, 3 inches thick, and 15 feet tall. They can be used to set up barriers or in the assembly of larger structures as internal walls. For example, the floor area of a large keep can be bought as if it was a wooden wall, as can the roof if it is made of timber. When using the wooden wall module in such a fashion just note that it has a surface area of 150 square feet. For an example of wooden wall modules being used in this manner, check the Castle on the Moors example that follows at the end of this section.
Laying out the Castle
Now that you understand the various modules and their uses, go ahead and lay out a rough floor plan of the castle you want to build. It needn’t be very detailed or complex, but should identify all of the modules that you want to use.